Jordan & Saudi Arabia: Desert Empires

Indulgence & Luxury Tour

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    This tour is provided by

    Arcadia Expeditions.

    Arcadia Expeditions specialises in expert-led immersive historical and cultural journeys to some of the world’s most inspiring and exotic destinations.

    • 24 Days
    • Maximum 16 Travellers
    • Fitness Level: Moderate
    In Search of Desert Empires

    From the dawn of civilisation, Arabia and the Levant have been at one of the world’s most important crossroads of peoples and cultures. Some of mankind’s greatest societies made their mark in this strategically significant area, located precariously at the gateway between the Orient and the Occident.

    Vast networks of trade routes once flourished in this region, including the fabled Frankincense Trail. Fuelled by demand for incense by the Egyptian and Roman empires, entire civilisations were made wealthy from its production and transport, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the ancient world. At its peak between the 3rd Century BCE and the 2nd Century CE, up to 1,000 camels per caravan plied this route. Yet in those days there was a certain mystery about the origins of this sacred resin, as well as stories of terrible things that happened to those who tried to find out.

    This expedition, the first of its kind, combines the fascinating history and archaeology of Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Tracing the Frankincense trade route of antiquity, we discover the magnificent highlights of Jordan and then venture overland into the vast remoteness of northern Saudi Arabia in search of ancient ruins and rock art. Following in the footsteps of key historical figures such as Saladin and Lawrence of Arabia, throughout our journey we explore Neolithic, Hellenistic, Nabataean, Roman, Early Christian, Arab and Crusader monuments as well as visits to some of the most spectacular archaeological sites anywhere in the world including Petra in Jordan and the rarely-visited oasis of Hegra (Madain Saleh) in Saudi Arabia.

    Led by expert archaeologist Dr Iain Shearer, this pioneering expedition immerses our travellers into the myths and legends of this captivating region, traversing lands of extraordinary natural beauty with stays in the very best luxury hotels and desert camps.

    Your Expert Expedition Leader
    Dr Iain Shearer Fras

    Iain is an archaeologist who has worked on sites across the Middle East, North Africa and Sudan, Central Asia, Caucasus, China, India, Pakistan, USA, Balkans, Europe and UK.

    Iain took his degrees at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, where he worked before being appointed The Sackler Scholar for Afghanistan and Iran at The British Museum. While working at UCL, he was asked to join the London Metropolitan Police Art & Antiques Unit Special Crime Directorate 6 as a Special Constable and is actively involved in the research and restitution of looted cultural heritage.

    Iain surveyed at Madain Saleh in Saudi Arabia with an Italian Mission during the 2000’s and excavated at Jerash and Petra in Jordan. He was made a Fellow of The Royal Asiatic Society in 2008 and visiting lecturer at the US Naval Academy in Annapolis Maryland. He enjoys popularising history for a non-specialist audience, leading numerous lecture tours during the last couple of decades for Oxford and Cambridge Universities, The British Museum, Art Gallery of NSW and regularly gives public lectures at institutions worldwide.

    Iain is the author of Lonely Planet’s Guide to Saudi Arabia and the Haj (2010), an author of Lonely Planet’s Guide to Iran (2012) and presenter of Lonely Planet & National Geographic’s ‘Road Less Travelled: Kazakhstan’.


    • Explore some of the world’s finest archaeological sites, including the Nabataean strongholds of Petra and Hegra and Jerash, one of the most well-preserved Roman cities in existence
    • See Crusader castles, ancient desert hunting lodges, fascinating petroglyphs and some of the most exceptional Byzantine mosaics in art history
    • Visit sites mentioned in the Bible and the Quran and location following the story of Moses
    • Follow in the footsteps of Lawrence of Arabia as we traverse the wilds of Wadi Rum and the Nefud-Al-Kebir desert
    • Savour the delights of Levantine food and wine in Amman on specially curated culinary experiences
    • Join a Bedouin tribe under the stars for a traditional campfire meal at Little Petra
    • Be one of the first to see one of the last unexplored countries on the planet, Saudi Arabia, only recently opened to travellers after decades of isolation

    Price Includes

    • Domestic flights as per itinerary
    • Meals as per itinerary (23 breakfasts, 17 lunches, 16 dinners) including welcome and farewell dinners
    • Private airport transfers (arrival and departure)
    • Fast track immigration and customs service upon arrival at Amman airport
    • Accommodation as stated on a twin-share basis
    • Porterage at airports and hotels
    • All land transport by private air-conditioned vehicle
    • Services of an Arcadia Expedition Leader and English-speaking local guide throughout
    • Sightseeing as specified including entrance fees to sites mentioned in itinerary
    • Reusable responsible travel water bottle with daily drinking water provided
    • Gratuities/tipping for local guides, drivers, hotel staff and restaurants for included meals
    • All taxes

    Price Excludes

    • Return international flights
    • Passport and visa charges
    • Items of a purely personal nature (i.e. telephone calls, laundry etc)
    • Excess luggage
    • Lunch and dinners not specifically mentioned as included in itinerary
    • Travel insurance


    The House Boutique Suites


    A luxury boutique hotel centrally located in the heart of the city, each of the spacious suites are tastefully appointed with chic contemporary décor and a kitchenette. The rooftop terrace and pool offer fabulous views over Amman, whilst the cafés and restaurants of cosmopolitan Rainbow Street are just a short stroll away. 

    Wadi Rum Bubble Luxotel

    Wadi Rum

    Glamping at its very best in the spectacular desert of Wadi Rum, each private bubble tent has a bedroom, private bathroom and seating area. The clear roof of the tent gives travellers the unique experience of having an unrestricted view of the spectacular night sky while you lay in bed or lounge in your living room, perfect if you want to enjoy the sunrise or late-night stargazing.

    Park Hyatt


    Located by the shores of the Red Sea on Jeddah’s lively corniche, the Park Hyatt offers refined luxury set amongst beautifully landscaped gardens. Rooms are decorated in a contemporary style with Arab-Andalusian influences, whilst two award-winning spas provide the ideal post-expedition retreat.

    Optional Pre and Post Expedition Touring

    Red Sea Extension

    Departing Jeddah

    Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coast has a wealth of white-sand beaches and virgin reefs brimming with marine life. We can arrange relaxing stays in the Kingdoms finest seaside resorts, as well as snorkelling and diving adventures. 

    Riyadh City Break 

    Departing Jeddah

    Explore the Saudi capital of Riyadh, one of the Middle East’s most dynamic cities, Visit the old city of Dirriyyah, where the Al-Saud dynasty first began, discover the compelling story of Arabian history at the National Museum and stroll the atmospheric Dira Souk, famous for its silver daggers, Bedouin jewellery and antique carpets.


    Day 1Arrival Amman

    On arrival at Amman Airport, you are met at the arrivals gate by an Arcadia representative, who will assist you with a VIP fast track Immigration and Customs service. You will be then transferred by private vehicle to your hotel.

    Amman is our base for 5 nights, allowing us the convenience to explore the fascinating sites of Northern Jordan on day trips and return to the comfort of our luxury hotel each night.

    After our 6pm group welcome meeting, we head to Fakhreldin Restaurant for a lavish welcome dinner, where we dine on the finest Levantine cuisine.

    The House Boutique Suites, Amman  |  Meals: D

    Day 2Amman

    Today we explore Jordan’s capital, a fascinating city of contrasts. We visit the Citadel, the fortress that was the religious and political centre of the ancient city. Situated on one of Amman’s highest hills with commanding views of the old city, the site dates from the Neolithic Period and contains the remains of the Roman Temple of Hercules, a Byzantine Church and Umayyad Palace. We venture on to the impressive 6,000 seat Roman Theatre, built in the 2nd Century CE at a time when the city was known as Philadelphia.

    We then visit the Jordan Museum, home to the country’s most important archaeological finds. This beautifully designed museum delves into the history and rich cultural heritage of Jordan and will serve as a vital precursor to set the scene for our forthcoming journey. Highlights include some of the famed Dead Sea Scrolls and the 7,500 BCE ‘Ain Ghazal statues which are considered one of the oldest human statues ever made.

    Arcadia Exclusive
    This afternoon we have arranged special access for our group to the Friends of Archaeology and Heritage Association in Amman. The Association actively promotes greater understanding of archaeology and the importance of preservation and conservation of Jordan’s national heritage. We will have a casual chat with some of the members and learn more about the vital work they are undertaking.

    The House Boutique Suites, Amman  |  Meals: B

    Day 3Pella & Ajloun

    Day 4 Jerash

    Day 5Desert Castles

    Day 6Umm ar-Rasas, Madaba, Mount Nebo & Dead Sea

    Leaving Amman for the last time, we head south to the UNESCO World Heritage site of Um ar-Rasas. This rectangular walled city lays in ruins, however restorations have preserved several buildings including one of the area’s earliest Stylite towers, whose crowning platform was home to Christian ascetics who preached to visiting pilgrims.

    In 1986 archaeologists uncovered here what is considered to be one of the finest Byzantine mosaics in the Middle East on the floor of the Church of St Stephen. This perfectly preserved mosaic was built in 785 CE and features a map detailing the most important towns in the Empire including Philadelphia (Amman), Madaba and Karak, making the mosaic a significant contributor to the geographical record.

    We drive on to Madaba, a centre of early Christianity located on the King’s Highway. We spend time exploring Madaba’s fascinating archaeological park which encompasses the remains of several Byzantine churches, including the outstanding mosaic on display at the Greek Orthodox Church of St George depicting a map of the Greater Jerusalem area. The map, made up of over two million pieces, is the oldest known geographic floor mosaic in art history and has been used frequently for localisation and verification of biblical sites.

    After visiting the Institute for Mosaic Art & Restoration in Madaba, an organisation dedicated to training local artists in the production and restoration of mosaics, we head to Mount Nebo, where it is said Moses first gazed upon the Promised Land. After taking in the spectacular views of Palestine and Israel from the top, we check in to our luxury accommodation located on the shores of the Dead Sea.

    Dead Sea Kempinski Ishtar Resort  |  Meals: B

    Day 7Dead Sea & Karak Castle

    This morning is free to enjoy a swim in the Dead Sea, which at 400 metres below sea level, is the lowest spot on earth. Floating in the hypersaline waters is a surreal experience not to be missed.

    Heading south, we visit the incredible 12th Century crusader castle at Karak. This monumental example of medieval military architecture is still imposing even today. It’s vast size and strategic position east of the Dead Sea made it a power centre that controlled Bedouin herders and trade routes from Damascus to Egypt and Mecca. The castle was besieged in 1183 by Saladin, the renowned Sultan of Egypt and Syria, who led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. It took three separate siege attempts by Saladin’s men at Karak, spread over 5 years, to finally force the Castle’s inhabitants to surrender.

    We spend the first of 3 nights in Petra in our luxury hotel, conveniently located right next to the entrance gates of the famed city.

    Movenpick Resort Petra  |  Meals: B

    Day 8Petra

    Few sites have the ability to take ones breath away like the city of Petra, one of the world’s greatest historical masterpieces. This astonishing city of rock, carved by hand out of rose-coloured canyons, was the capital of the desert dwelling Nabatean Kingdom and reached prominence around the 2nd Century BCE. It is from Petra that the Nabateans controlled the northern end of the overland Frankincense trail. The vast revenues generated by its status as a major regional trading and distribution hub made this previously nomadic Arab tribe wealthy beyond imagination. Once home to 20,000 inhabitants, Petra’s importance waned with its annexation by the Roman Empire in the 2nd Century CE and the parallel decline of the camel caravans as sea trade routes emerged.

    We begin our in-depth exploration of Petra by walking through the narrow winding canyon known as the Siq, which emerges spectacularly at the famed façade of the Treasury. We spend the morning in the company of our expert Expedition Leader, learning more about the monumental palaces, tombs, temples and dwellings and the people who inhabited them.

    After a rest in the hotel this afternoon, we return in the evening to experience Petra by night. We walk in silence along the candle-lit path of the Siq and witness the magical scene of the Treasury lit up by a carpet of hundreds of candles.

    Movenpick Resort Petra  |  Meals: B

    Day 9Petra, Beidah & Little Petra

    This morning, our travellers are free to return to Petra for further explorations of this vast city. Those interested to visit the striking façade of the Monastery will climb 800 steps through a narrow wadi and take in tremendous views over the eastern valleys of Jordan.

    Later this afternoon we will drive to visit Beidah and Little Petra. Beidah is a major Neolithic archaeological site that dates back 10,000 years, making it one of the earliest settlements in the entire Middle East. The site has revealed evidence of its inhabitants transitioning from nomadic to settled life. Digs have discovered cultivation of some early domesticated plants and animals, whilst various objects recovered, such as Anatolian obsidian, prove that trade flourished across large distances even in these early times.

    Nabataean Little Petra consists of three open areas connected by a narrow 450-metre long canyon. A suburb of Petra used as a supply post for camel caravans and a lodging area for visiting traders, it was known for many years only to local Bedouin’s until the 1950’s, when excavations began under the British archaeologist Diana Kirkbride.

    Tonight, we are in for a treat as we join the local Ammarin tribe for an authentic Bedouin meal. We gather around the campfire under the stars at Little Petra and enjoy some local delicacies such as Zarb, a succulent meat and vegetable dish seasoned with herbs and spices that has been buried in an oven with hot coals beneath the desert sands.

    Movenpick Resort Petra  |  Meals: B,D

    Day 10 Wadi Rum

    Today we experience the extraordinary desert landscapes of Wadi Rum, a wild valley of dramatic granite and sandstone peaks surrounded by red sand dunes. The area was regularly visited by Lawrence of Arabia and featured as the real-life set in the 1962 film based on his life.

    We are picked up in 4×4 vehicles by local Bedouins who lead us in our desert explorations. We visit hidden valleys and canyons, see ancient petroglyphs and traverse amongst rock bridges and staggering mountain scenery. After lunch with the Bedouins, we arrive at our luxurious desert camp, where the clear roof of our sumptuous tents allows for unforgettable star gazing and sunrise opportunities.

    Wadi Rum Bubble Luxotel  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 11Wadi Rum & Aqaba

    Following an optional camel ride this morning amongst the beautiful scenery of Wadi Rum, we drive to Aqaba on Jordan’s Red Sea coast.

    Today is free to enjoy some down time and relax at our beachfront resort. There are plenty of activities and water sports for those seeking adventure – snorkelling the fringing coral reef, taking a fishing trip or enjoying a sunset cruise.

    Aqaba Hyatt Regency Ayla Resort  |  Meals: B,L

    Day 12Aqaba - Saudi Border Crossing – Jebal Al-Lawz

    With our batteries recharged, we transfer this morning to the border crossing between Jordan and Saudi Arabia at Durra.

    After completing customs formalities, we start our explorations of Saudi Arabia in Tabuk Province, home to some of the country’s most majestic natural and historical sites. As quoted in both the Bible and Quran, Tabuk is the ancient land of Midian, where Moses sought refuge after fleeing Egypt.

    We drive south to picnic at Jebal Al-Lawz, a mythical mountain that peaks at 2,549 meters above sea level. After lunch, we venture to the valleys surrounding the mountain to view some ancient rock carvings and sites allegedly related to the epic of Moses.

    The Royal Tulip, Sharma  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 13 Ancient Midian

    Today we follow in the footsteps of Moses, first visiting the Bir Sa’idani, the well of Moses, a beautiful oasis where he met his wife Sephora. Heading to the turquoise waters and white beaches of the Gulf of Aqaba, we stop by the phenomenal canyon at Tayeb Ism, an imposing granite massif whose edges fall directly into the Red Sea. A small stream of water and a palm grove make this a magical place.

    After lunch we visit Al-Bada’, home to an ancient city that was named Midian until the Middle-Ages. This vast archaeological site dates from the 2nd Century BCE – coins discovered at the site have proven that the city was active during the Hellenistic, Nabatean, Roman, and Islamic periods. Moses purportedly lived in Midian for a period of 10 years. The site includes Nabatean tombs, built in a style similar to those found in Petra, and the caves of the Prophet Sho’ayb, who is sometimes identified with the Biblical Jethro.

    Late this afternoon we drive to the breathtaking sandstone formations of Jibal Hisma, where a specially created desert camp is set for us.

    Desert Camp  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 14Jibal Hisma & Tabuk

    An extension of Jordan’s Wadi Rum, the dramatic scenery at Jibal Hisma is every bit as spectacular as the more famed site across the border. This morning, we jump in our 4WD vehicles to roam among the blood red sand dunes and giant sandstone massifs of Hisma’s other-worldly landscape. We visit ancient rock art sites, some of which feature Arabic scripts dating to the first decades of Islam, showing that this area was crossed by ancient trade and pilgrimage roads.

    We have a leisurely picnic lunch at Zeetah this afternoon, a place with some of the region’s most amazing viewpoints and fascinating ancient carvings. We overnight in Tabuk, the capital city of the province that carries its name.

    The Swiss Inn, Tabuk  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 15Wadi Qaraqir

    From Tabuk we drive to Wadi Qaraqir, known as the most beautiful valley in Arabia. We first stop in at a lookout to appreciate the massive scale of the canyon, whose walls reach 500 metres in some places. Descending to the valley floor, we take our time to savour this incredible place, exploring the small stream and lush green grasses and palm trees that runs along the wadi bed.

    As we emerge out of the western entrance of the valley, we stop at some ancient remains by the oasis city of Dissah before heading south, past the volcanoes of the Harrat Al-‘Uwayrid and its 9 million year old lava field, to the fabled oasis of Al-Ula.

    Shaden Resort, Al-Ula  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 16Al-Ula (Dedan)

    For the next two days we explore Al-Ula, one of the most spectacular archaeological sites in the Middle East. This beautiful oasis valley has over 7000 years of continuous history and was home to a succession of great civilisations including the Dedanites, Lihyanites, Nabataens and the Roman Empire. Because of its abundant water, Al-Ula was an important stop along the Frankincense route, a transit area for the camel caravans on their way to Egypt, the Levant and Mediterranean ports. With the advent of Islam in the 7th Century, the trading routes slowly transformed into pilgrimage trails. Al-Ula was an essential way station for pilgrims following the Syrian and Egyptian routes to Mecca and Medina well into the early twentieth century.

    We begin by exploring the old town of Al-Ula, a traditional Arabian village built 800 years ago and inhabited until the mid 1900’s. We wander through this maze of ruined mud houses, where over 1000 dwellings were built together to form a defensive wall around the town.

    We continue on to Dedan, the oldest city of the oasis and home to the successive kingdoms of Dedan and Lihyan, which ruled this area from the eighth to the first century BCE. Their political, economic and religious centre was here, strategically located by the palm groves at the base of an imposing sandstone cliff. The quality of the remains in this ancient city is a vibrant testimony of the richness of the caravan trade. We take our time to discover the well-preserved architectural vestiges of these two kingdoms which includes remains of temples, a necropolis and sanctuaries dedicated to the gods of water and agriculture.

    After lunch we visit nearby Ekma gorge, the so called Lihyan library, where 200 ancient inscriptions carved in the rock tell give us a fascinating glimpse into the lives of the people of Dedan and Lihyan.

    Important Note: Please be aware that the archaeological sites of Dedan and Hegra are currently under restoration as part of the Saudi governments recent push to prepare the country for tourism. They are scheduled to open at the end of 2020. Whilst we are confident we will be able to visit these important sites, Arcadia Expeditions cannot guarantee that they will be open in time for our expeditions.

    Shaden Resort, Al-Ula  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 17Al-Ula (Hegra - Madain Saleh)

    This morning we explore the most iconic historical remains in all of Saudi Arabia, the UNESCO World Heritage site of Hegra, also known as Madain Saleh. Hegra was a principal Frankincense route town built by the Nabataeans, who, having grown wealthy from the taxes imposed on caravans passing through their capital Petra, expanded the borders of their kingdom south in order to bring them closer to the Red Sea ports. The urban area they created at Hegra shares many characteristics with Petra – such as the monumental rock-cut tombs – and was eventually transitioned into a military outpost by the Roman Empire, who annexed the Nabataean Kingdom in 106 CE.

    After an overview on the ancient city from our Expedition Leader, we visit a selection of the most interesting tombs, many with extraordinarily majestic facades cut into the sandstone massifs, and continue our discussions on Nabataean culture and architecture.

    After lunch, we head to the outskirts of Al-Ula on an desert trip and begin with a visit to the hidden canyons of Jibal Al-Rukkab, a colossal labyrinth of fantastical rock shapes and sandy wadis set amongst narrow sandstone chasms. We move on to the sacred area of Jibal Ithlib, home to Diwan cultic sites and petroglyphs, before finishing our day at the famed Al-Farid tomb, whose surface occupies two third of an isolated rock and is a further testament to the outstanding workmanship of the highly skilled Nabataean craftsmen.

    Shaden Resort, Al-Ula  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 18 Mahajah

    We drive east today to an ancient area known for having hosted early humans for several millenia. Mahajah is a rocky desert punctuated by beautiful sandstone arches and formations that, because of the region’s difficult terrain, remains relatively unexplored. This remoteness has resulted in a wealth of pristine sites that are rarely seen.

    Mahajah’s picturesque natural arches host a rich variety of rock art. We visit Hafirat Lagat, a rock wall more than 160 meters long covered with thousands of carvings showing life-size animals including camels, goats and buffaloes. There is an incredible concentration of Thamudic inscriptions – a script used by Bedouins over 2000 years ago, as well as Nabatean texts, proving that this place was once regularly crossed by travellers and caravans.

    Throughout today, we follow the story of French explorer Charles Huber, who travelled twice to Arabia in 1880 and 1884. Thanks to his diary, and his name that we will see chiselled by his own hand in the rock at various places he visited, we can retrace his itinerary across this unforgiving landscape.

    Desert Camp  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 19Nefud Al-Kebir

    The large sand dunes of the Nefud Al-Kebir desert have played a pivotal role in the history of the Arabian Peninsula. In 2018, researchers discovered here an 85,000 year old human bone that is the oldest directly dated fossil of Homo Sapiens outside of Africa and the Levant. It proves that early human dispersal out of Africa was not limited to Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but also extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia. More recently, Lawrence of Arabia crossed this supposedly impassable desert on his daredevil mission to attack Aqaba.

    After crossing the variable red, yellow and white desert sands of Nefud Al-Kebir, our expedition team set up our tents beneath the mountain range of the Jibal Misma at the same location where Charles Huber camped during both of his expeditions.

    Desert Camp  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 20Harrat Khaybar

    A little-known natural feature of Saudi Arabia is its abundance of volcanoes, a consequence of its location on the eastern side of the Red Sea Rift. Today we venture to the centre of one of the country’s most famous lava fields, the awe-inspiring Harrat Khaybar.

    The extent of the lava flow, from both ancient and recent eruptions, covers more than 14,000 square kilometres and includes a line of volcanic vents, scoria cones and lava domes. Driving through the dark basalt, we come upon the jewel of the Harrat Khabar and one of the most breathtaking sites in the country – the white volcanoes. These rare volcanoes are composed of a silica-rich igneous rock called comendite, which give them their whitish colour. We set up camp beneath the imposing cone of the 2093 metre Jebel Abiadh volcano.

    Desert Camp  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 21The White Volcanoes & Al-Hait

    For those in the group ready for a challenge, we hike for 1.5 hours to the summit of Jebel Abiadh. The view from the top is simply out-of-this-world, as we look down into the crater and across at another massive white volcano, Jebel Bayda, which has a diameter of 1.5 kilometres.

    After lunch at the camp, we drive to the rim of Jebel Bayda for more views of this surreal landscape and then head to the city of Al-Hait. Known in ancient times as Fadak, Al-Hait is mentioned on the Stelae of Nabonidus, an important artefact housed at the British Museum, as one of the six oasis conquered by the last king of Babylon in 552 BCE.

    Al-Hait Hotel  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 22Shuwaymis

    This morning we drive to the edge of the Harrat Khaybar to visit Shuwaymis, a unique UNESCO World Heritage site containing some of the oldest and most outstanding rock art on the Arabian Peninsula. The numerous representations of human and animal figures of these vivid petroglyphs cover 10,000 years of history. Many species of game and carnivores are shown, including cheetah, leopard and Arabian wolf, as well as Neolithic hunting scenes with men carrying bows and arrows overwritten with images of domestic cattle.

    These depictions of animals, which includes some extinct species, provides compelling evidence that humans and animals once thrived in landscapes vastly different to what we see today. Climate simulations show that during the 7th century BCE Shuwaymis was at the northern edge of the African summer monsoon rainfall region and featured lakes, wetlands and expanses of vegetation. Local people thereafter had to adapt to climate change as the region dried out.

    We return to Al-Hait for lunch and take the road towards Hail, the capital of central Arabia during most of the 19th century. On our way we stop at Al-Shamli to see some more recent well-preserved rock carvings depicting Arabian horses and riders.

    Millennium Hotel, Hail  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 23Jeddah

    We take a flight to Jeddah this morning, Saudi Arabia’s modern seaport metropolis set on the Red Sea. After checking in to our luxury accommodation by the coast, we have lunch at a restaurant on the city’s trendy corniche.

    This afternoon we visit the historic old town of Al-Balad in the centre of Jeddah, which dates from the 7th Century. We wander the atmospheric streets of Al -Balad, visit its bustling souks and admire its elegant traditional houses built of mud and coral and adorned with ornate wooden balconies.

    After a rest at our hotel, we return to the lively corniche of New Jeddah for our farewell dinner.


    Park Hyatt Jeddah  |  Meals: B,L,D

    Day 24Departure Day

    With the expedition coming to an end, take a private transfer to Jeddah airport or embark on further touring.

    Meals: B